Sunday, March 26, 2006

CHOCOLATE FRUIT BARS

2 ozs. (1/2 cup) stoned dates 2 ozs. (1/2 cup) pine nuts
2 ozs. (1/2 cup) seedless 1 teaspoonful vanilla extract
raisins 1 white of egg
a ozs. (1/2 cup) chopped 1 oz. (1/4 cup) currants
candied citron peel Confectioners' sugar
2 ozs. (1/2 cup) chopped A little melted chocolate
candied lemon and 2 tablespoonfuls water
orange peel

Chop all the fruits and nuts very fine, or run them through a food-chopper.
Put the white of egg into a basin, add the water, vanilla, fruits, and
enough sifted confectioners' sugar to form a stiff paste.

Let the mixture dry for four hours.

Brush it over with melted chocolate. When dry, turn the sweet over on to waxed paper, and brush over the other side with melted chocolate.

Allow to set, then cut into neat bars with a sharp knife.

CHERRY CREAMS

8 ozs. (1 cup) confectioners' sugar Flavors Colors



Pinch cream of tartar Crystallized cherries Cream

Sift the sugar into a basin, add the cream of tartar and enough cream to make a stiff paste; flavor with orange and lemon extracts to taste, and divide into five portions; leave one portion white, and color the remaining portions pink, rose, pale green and brown; roll out each piece to one-eighth of an inch thick, dip a small plain cutter into confectioners' sugar and cut into rounds.

As each one is cut place a cherry in the center; fold up three sides so that the fruit is exposed in the center, but partly covered. Place in little paper cases.

CANDY BY MAIL

The best way to send candy by mail: Line buttered tin boxes with waxed paper, pour the candy in while hot, mark in squares when cool enough, cover, and wrap.

BALTIMORE LAYER CANDY

5 whites of eggs Few drops orange color
21/2 tablespoonfuls cream Few drops red color
1 teaspoonful lemon extract Few drops green color
1 teaspoonful rose extract 1 square melted chocolate
1 teaspoonful almond extract 6 tablespoonfuls chopped almonds
1 teaspoonful vanilla extract 1/4 lb. (1 cup) chopped coconut
1/2 teaspoonful orange extract
1 orange, grated rind and strained juice Sifted confectioners' sugar


Beat up one white of egg, add the lemon extract, one teaspoonful of the cream, the coconut, and mix with sufficient confectioners' sugar to make stiff enough to knead thoroughly. Then spread evenly in the bottom of a pan lined with waxed paper.

The other four layers are made in the same way, except that the color and flavor of each are different. Thus the second layer is colored with a few drops of red and flavored with rose extract; the third is mixed with vanilla and chocolate; the fourth with green color and almond extract, while the fifth is prepared with orange color, orange extract, and the rind and juice of an orange.

Spread evenly one above the other and let remain in the pan for two days, then turn out on a board sifted with confectioners' sugar, and allow to stand three days before slicing.

Wrap each piece in waxed paper and keep in airtight tins.

SALTED POPCORN

Have the corn freshly popped, and cook it a delicate brown in hot melted butter. While hot, sprinkle with fine salt.

CRYSTALLIZED MINT, ROSE, AND VIOLET LEAVES

2 lbs. mint, rose, or violet Pinch cream of tartar leaves 1 pint (2 cups) water

21/2 lbs. lump-sugar

Remove the stalks from the flowers and rinse them in cold water; then spread on white paper to dry.

Place two pounds of the lump-sugar with the water in a saucepan and dissolve thoroughly, stirring it with the thermometer; when dissolved, add the cream of tartar and cook until it forms a soft ball when tried in cold water, or until it reaches 240° by the thermometer; remove from the fire, and add the flowers; press them down well under the syrup; return to the fire and allow to boil up once; then pour gently into a cold dish. The next day drain on a sieve. To the syrup add the remaining sugar and cook again without stirring to the soft-ball stage; put in the flowers and set aside over night; drain again, heat to the boiling-point, and add the flowers. Remove from the fire and stir gently until the syrup begins to grain; then pour on to sheets of paper; shake and separate the flowers; when dry, pick them from the sugar.

Lilac flowers may be crystallized in the same manner.

ROYAL ICING FOR DECORATING CANDIES

1 lb. (2 cups) confectioners' 1 dessertspoonful lemon-
sugar juice
2 whites of eggs

Sift the sugar into a basin. Add the whites of eggs and the lemon-juice. Stir until well mixed; then beat well with a wooden spoon for a quarter of an hour. The icing must not drop from the spoon. If too thick, add more white of egg, and if too thin, add a little more icing sugar. Color if desired.

Use a small bag and tube for decorating candies.

SALTED ALMONDS

1/2 lb. blanched Jordan al- 2 tablespoonfuls olive oil or monds melted butter Salt

Blanch the almonds and dry them on a clean cloth. Put the oil or butter into a small frying-pan or a chafing-dish, and when hot, add the almonds and stir and fry them until delicately browned. Drain on paper and sprinkle with salt. If the almonds, oil, and salt are mixed together and allowed to stand in a cool place, the nuts will be nicely seasoned throughout. Pecan-nut meats, blanched pistachio nuts, and peanuts also may be salted.

HOW TO SPIN SUGAR

2 lbs. (4 cups) sugar Pinch cream of tartar

1 pint (2 cups) water 1 teaspoonful glucose

Spinning sugar simply consists in drawing the hot sugar, which has been boiled to the crack, into fine strands, which will harden immediately and retain their form. Dissolve the sugar in the water over the fire, and boil to 280°; then add the cream of tartar and glucose, and continue to boil to 310°. Remove quickly from the fire, and, to prevent the sugar from changing its color, stand the pan in a basin of cold water. Take it out of the cold water and place it in a basin of warm water. Oil a rolling-pin or the blade of a large knife and hold it out straight with the left hand; then with the right hand dip a warm spoon into the sugar and shake it backward and forward over the rolling-pin. The sugar will fall across the pin in long threads. Continue the operation until enough spun sugar is obtained; then cut off the ends and press as required into molds or shape on a slab.

Another way is to oil the handles of two wooden spoons, and fix them in drawers or under weights with the ends projecting over the edge of a table. Cover the floor underneath with some clean paper or several large baking pans. Take a large fork, two forks, an egg-beater, or a bunch of wires, and dip it into the syrup. Move quickly backward and forward over the oiled spoon handles. Continue until there is a bunch of sugar threads that look like silk. The threads may be made fine or coarse by moving the forks or spinners slow or fast.

If more sugar is required for spinning, or if that in course of spinning is too thick or firm for use, warm the pan over a slow fire so that the sugar does not change color. The syrup may be colored if liked.

Spun sugar is used for decorating candies, cakes, and for finishing many dishes for dessert. It is used also for making birds' nests, baskets, and vases.

It must be made and kept in a very dry atmosphere, and it must be used as soon as possible.

The steam of kettles is to be avoided, for it is impossible to spin sugar in moist air.

CRYSTALLIZING

4 lbs. lump-sugar 2 pints (4 cups) water

Put the sugar and water into a saucepan; place it on the fire, stir until the sugar is dissolved, and boil to 225°. Remove the thermometer and gently lift the pan on to a table. On the hot sugar lay a piece of paper with a small hole cut out of the center, and set in a cool place until required for use. The paper should be dipped in cold water and should fit closely round the sides of the pan. It is not necessary that this syrup should be quite cold before using, but it should be cooled enough not to grain, and not so hot as to soften the fondants or other candies.

Place the candies to be crystallized on racks in the tins. Remove any crystals which may have formed and the paper covering from the syrup, and pour enough of the syrup over the candies on each rack completely to cover them. Cover the candies with a piece of damp muslin, and leave undisturbed for ten or twelve hours. When a specially thick coating of the crystals is desired, it is necessary to leave the candies longer in the syrup.

Lift off the muslin and drain away the syrup; take the candies out, place on sieves, and leave in a warm place over night to become dry. The surfaces of the candies should be covered with fine, bright sugar crystals. Many candies are improved in appearance and keeping qualities by being crystallized, and some look better if crystallized twice.

PULLED SUGAR

2 lbs. lump-sugar 1 tablespoonful glucose

1/2 pint (1 cup) water 1/4 teaspoonful cream of tartar

Put the sugar and water in a saucepan, and set in a warm place to dissolve. When thoroughly dissolved place on the fire, add the glucose and the cream of tartar, boil as quickly as possible to 312°, and remove at once from the stove. Dip the pan into cold water to stop the boiling. Pour the syrup on a lightly oiled slab, and as the edges cool, turn them on to the center of the sugar, using a knife to lift them.

When the sugar is cool enough to handle, roll it into a ball and pull with the fingers from the two sides, turning the ends over from side to side and into the center.

Be careful that all parts are equally pulled. Very soon the sugar will take on a white sheen and become whiter and whiter. Care should be taken that it does not become too cold. While shaping the pulled sugar into fancy forms, it should be pulled near the heat of an oven or in front of a batch warmer, and it should not be overheated. It should not be worked too hot, otherwise it loses its glossy appearance. Flowers made with pulled sugar are very effective in appearance. To retain their gloss, it is necessary to keep them in an air-tight glass case.

To make a pulled sugar rose pull a piece of sugar with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, and break this off short. Shape the piece round and with a thin edge; press this in the center, and fold over to bring the thin edges almost together to represent the center of a rose just beginning to open. Pull some leaves and arrange three or four of them slightly higher than the bud, and outside of these fasten a few others as required.

Fasten the lower parts of the petals so as to leave the outer edge standing out from the bud. The stems of the roses are pulled out from the sugar, and cut off according to the size desired, with scissors, and then fixed together. A real flower should be employed as a pattern. To make the flowers more effective green pulled sugar leaves arc necessary. It is sometimes necessary to cut the sugar with a pair of scissors to the desired shape. The basket shown in the photograph is made by weaving lengths of pulled sugar around wooden skewers, which are fixed upright in a thick piece of board. Special prepared stands or boards can be made, on which upright sticks of sugar have been fastened.

It is necessary to work near to the batch warmer or the oven. Pull out pieces of the sugar about twenty inches long and as thick as a large lead-pencil, and twist this round the sticks or skewers as in basket-making. Continue this operation until the wicker-work reaches within an inch of the top. Place the basket on a prepared base of sugar. Fasten in small sticks of sugar to replace those removed. Make the handle with a piece of twisted sugar, and decorate with flowers, leaves, twists, and ribbon bows all made with the same material. The sugar for the handle should be twisted over a piece of wire. The flowers and stems should be heated and fastened to the handle with the aid of a warm, pointed knife.

Pulled sugar is often used in conjunction with spun sugar and nougats. Sugar is pulled to produce a bright sheen and to make it very crisp to eat.

Pulled sugar may be colored and flavored to taste.

VANILLA SUGAR

1 lb. lump-sugar 1 oz. vanilla beans

Chop up the vanilla beans; pound them in a mortar or a basin with the sugar, and rub all through a fine sieve.

ORANGE SUGAR

1/2 lb. lump-sugar 12 oranges

Wash and dry the oranges; cut off the thin yellow rinds, rejecting all the white peel. Dry them thoroughly; then pound with the lump-sugar, and rub through a fine sieve. Keep in an airtight tin.

Tangerine oranges or lemons may be used in the same way.
Flavoring sugars are very useful and economical, and in many instances can take the place of extracts, which are more expensive.

CARAMEL

1/2 lb. (1 cup) sugar 1/2 pint (1 cup) warm water
Put the sugar into a granite kettle, and stir constantly, with a wooden spoon, until it is dissolved and has turned brown; add the warm water, and simmer until the sugar is again dissolved and the liquid has been reduced to a thin syrup. Keep in a corked bottle.

HOW TO STUFF DATES

Remove the stones from one pound of dates and stuff them with salted almonds. Close the dates, then brush them over with a little beaten white of egg, and roll in colored sugar, colored coconut, chopped pistachio nuts, or spangle with brilliantine. Dates may be stuffed with flavored and colored fondant, then closed and soaked in a little sherry wine for ten minutes. To finish, drain and roll them in fine sugar. They may be stuffed with seedless raisins or marshmallows, walnuts chopped to a paste, preserved ginger and cherries chopped together, pecan-nut meats and cherries chopped together, figs, prunes, and shredded coconut finely chopped. A toasted almond may be pressed into the marshmallows before they are put into the dates.

Fill stoned dates with the following mixture: Boil together one and a half cupfuls of sugar and one cupful of milk for a few minutes, then add one heaping teaspoonful of sweet butter and boil till it forms a soft ball when tried in cold water. Remove from the fire; add one teaspoonful of rose extract and a few drops of red color and beat until thick. When the dates are stuffed, roll in chopped nut meats. Dates are delicious stuffed with fresh peanut butter, then dipped into melted chocolate, melted fondant, or into glace. They may be stuffed with pale-green marzipan flavored with peppermint extract; or they may be filled with chopped English walnut meats, rolled in boiled frosting, and in finely chopped coconut. Black walnut meats may be used in the same way. Remove the stones from large dates and stuff them with raisins or cherries that have been filled with flavored fondant, or stuff the dates with chopped candied ginger, candied pineapple, pounded dates, chopped angelica, chopped pistachio nuts, roasted almonds, roasted peanuts, or with chopped nougat. Pack the dates in layers, in a tin box, covering each layer with waxed paper. The stuffed dates may be dipped in melted, flavored fondant, melted chocolate, or glace.

Prunes, figs, and cherries may be stuffed and dipped in the same way. Remove the stones from large dates. Melt a little butter in a small frying pan, put the dates in, split side up, fry for a few minutes, turn over, and fry the other side. Remove from the fire, stuff each with chopped nuts flavored with vanilla extract, and roll in colored sugar or colored coconut.

COATING SYRUP

1 lb. (2 cups) sugar 11/4 gills (3/4 cup) water

Dissolve the sugar slowly in the water. When it comes to boiling-point, remove the impurities from the surface. Boil to 236°, and use as directed in recipes where its use is required.

CHOCOLATE FROSTING

Put into a saucepan two ounces of unsweetened chocolate, half a cupful of sugar, three teaspoonfuls of butter, a quarter of a cupful of milk, and cook to 240°; then add two teaspoonfuls of sherry wine.

HOW TO COLOR COCOANUT

Sprinkle some desiccated or chopped coconut on grease-proof paper; add a little color, and rub evenly throughout. Dry and keep in glass jars or cans for use.

HOW TO BLANCH PISTACHIO NUTS

Cover the nuts with cold water, then bring to boiling-point, and boil for five minutes. Plunge into cold water, drain, and rub off the skins.

HOW TO PREPARE CHESTNUTS

With a sharp knife make a slit in each chestnut; put them into boiling water for four minutes, take out, and dry thoroughly. Then melt three tablespoonfuls of butter in a saucepan, and toss the chestnuts about in it until every nut is coated and very hot.

It will then be found that with the aid of a sharp-pointed knife both skins can be easily removed together, leaving the nut whole, and ready for subsequent manipulations.

HOW TO MAKE BRILLIANTINE

Put two ounces of the best gum arabic and half a cupful of water into a double boiler, and stir occasionally over hot water.

When quite melted strain it through a piece of fine muslin. Have some pieces of glass, very clean and well polished. Dip a stiff brush into the gum, brush it lightly over the glass, and dry in a warm room.

When quite dry and set, scrape or brush it off. The brilliantine may be rolled with a rolling-pin or left in tiny flakes.

It is used for spangling candies. Color may be added to it if liked.

HOW TO BEAT THE WHITES OF EGGS

Separate the whites very carefully from the yolks of the eggs, for if any particles of the yolks mix with the whites they will prevent their rising properly.

An egg separator is a handy little article for manipulating eggs. It consists of a small round disk made of aluminum, with a center cup for holding the yolk of an egg, while the white drops through an opening surrounding the cup.

It is best to put the separator on the top of a tumbler, so that when the egg is broken the white will fall into the glass without danger of losing any of it. One or two whites of eggs are best beaten on a platter with a broad-bladed knife, three or more being whipped in a basin with an egg-beater. Always beat eggs in a cool place and take care that the basin is dry and clean.

Beat until they are stiff enough to form a firm and substantial froth.

HOW TO CLARIFY STOCK SYRUP

After making the syrup in the usual way pour it in a steady stream over the stiffly beaten whites of eggs, allowing two whites of eggs to one pound of sugar.

Return to the pan and simmer till the whites have coagulated and risen to the surface. Strain and the syrup will be clear.

HOW TO PREPARE VARNISH FOR CANDIES

Take a quarter of a pound of gum Senegal, three gills of warm water, three ounces of lump-sugar, and one and a quarter gills of spirits of wine. Dissolve the gum in the water to form a rather stiff mucilage; put the sugar into a clean saucepan with five table-spoonfuls of cold water; set it over the fire till reduced to a syrup; then boil up to 228° F., taking care to skim off all the scum that may rise to the top; remove from the fire, and when cooled for a minute, mix in the spirits of wine. When quite cold, stir in the gum and bottle for use.

This varnish is perfectly harmless, and can be tinted to any color. If too thick when required for use, thin with a little spirits of wine.

Apply the varnish to the candy with a soft camel's-hair brush.

HOW TO MAKE STOCK SYRUP

Put one pound of granulated sugar into a saucepan; add one pint of water and bring slowly to boiling-point; then remove the scum from the surface. Put on the 3 lid, and boil for four minutes to allow the condensing steam to clear any crystals of sugar from the sides of the pan.

Boil gently for twenty-five minutes.

Remove from the fire, allow it to cool, and bottle for use.

HOW TO PREPARE ANGELICA

Allow the pieces of angelica to soak in boiling water for a few minutes to soften them and remove the sugar. The angelica is then ready to be cut up.

HOW TO COLOR SUGAR

Put some fine or coarse granulated sugar on a piece of stiff white paper; sprinkle over a few drops of the desired color, and rub with a wooden spoon or between the hands till evenly distributed.

Dry in a moderate heat, occasionally separating the grains by rubbing them between the fingers, and keep for use in a dry bottle or a tin box. Lump-sugar may be used, but it must be broken up with a rolling-pin and sifted.

HOW TO PREPARE CONFECTIONERS' SUGAR Keep confectioners' sugar in a dry place in an airtight tin or jar, and before using rub through a fine sieve.

PREPARATION HINTS AND RECIPES

PREPARATION HINTS AND RECIPES

"I can teach sugar to slip down your throat a million of ways"

HOW TO BLANCH ALMONDS Put the almonds into a saucepan, cover with cold water, and bring to boiling-point; then remove from the fire. Drain and run cold water over them. Turn out on a coarse cloth and rub off the outer skins. Blanched almonds may be cut lengthways in shreds or strips, or they may be cut crossways in thin slices. They may be chopped by cutting across several times. Collect the pieces in a chopping bowl or on a chopping board, and with a broad-bladed knife or a chopper chop them as coarse or as fine as required. To split almonds, insert a pointed knife at one end and the nut will split in two.

To grind almonds put them through a nut mill or a chopper, or pound them in a mortar, occasionally adding a few drops of rose-water or orange-flower water to prevent the paste from becoming too oily.

HOW TO COLOR ALMONDS

Blanch two cupfuls of almonds; let them get cold and wipe dry; put them into an earthenware dish, and pour over them five tablespoonfuls of olive oil; let them remain for one hour, stirring occasionally, that all may be equally covered. Put them into a frying-pan or a baking tin in a hot oven till they are evenly colored brown; turn out on grease-proof paper to dry.

Chop some blanched and dried almonds, then spread them on white paper, add a few drops of whatever color is desired; rub them together until they are all colored alike, then dry carefully and keep for use.

THE CRACK

If some of the sugar breaks with a slight noise and does not stick to the tooth, it is at the soft crack stage.

Boil it again, and if it is tested and will quickly set hard and will easily snap when pressed, it is at the hard crack degree. Sugar at this stage passes rapidly to caramel, and will burn, if not attended to at once.

THE CARAMEL

Sugar boiled to the caramel is slightly dark in color. It breaks, when tested, making a noise like glass. When boiled, take it from the fire, and put the bottom of the pan into cold water, to prevent its burning. The production of caramel is attended with some difficulty, and great attention is necessary.

When a boiling solution of sugar and water has passed the soft-ball degree, it may readily grain unless glucose or some kind of acid is added. The danger may be guarded against also by melting the sugar very thoroughly before allowing the syrup to boil, or by brushing or sponging round the sides of the pan during boiling, so as to dissolve any hard particles or crystals forming there. Cream of tartar is the acid usually used to prevent the granulation of the syrup. If too large a quantity is used, it will cause the sugar to change color quickly, and the candies made or covered with it are likely to be soft and sticky.

The cream of tartar should not be added until all the scum has been removed from the boiling sugar and the sides of the pan cleansed from crystals. Boiling sugar intended for pulling or such purposes is all the better for the addition of a teaspoonful of glucose with the cream of tartar.
Pure sugar and water show no tendency to boil over. All impurities or scum on the surface should be removed as soon as the syrup boils, and then the boiling should be allowed to proceed quickly till the required degree is reached.

THE BALL

The soft-ball degree is tested by making a small bulb of sugar between the fingers while it is cooling in a glass of cold water, or by obtaining long feathery pieces from the spoon or skimmer. When the bulb of sugar is larger and harder, it is known as the hard ball.

THE BLOW

This is the first workable degree to which sugar is boiled. Dip the spoon or a skimmer into the sugar, shake it, and blow through the holes: if sparks of light or bubbles be seen, you may be sure of the blow.

THE PEARL

When you separate your finger and thumb, and the thread reaches, without breaking, from one to the other, it is the small pearl; if the finger and thumb be stretched to their utmost extent, and the thread remain unbroken, it is the large pearl. This stage may also be recognized by the bubbles on the boiling sugar, which are round and raised; but this test is not always sure.

THE FEATHER

When the boiling sugar has reached the feather stage, it may be blown easily from the wire or spoon in long shreds.

THE THREAD

If you do not use a thermometer, dip the tip of your forefinger into the syrup and apply it to your thumb; on parting them, you will find a thread which will break at a little distance, and remain as a drop on the finger; this is a small thread. If the thread be longer, it is the great thread.

THE DEGREES OF BOILING THE SUGAR

Sugar may be boiled on an ordinary range, a gas, gasoline, or oil stove, an electric stove, or a chafing-dish. A sugar thermometer is generally used for testing the boiling sugar, but other means may be used, such as the fingers only, a perforated iron spoon, a piece of bent wire, or a sharp piece of wood.

The following scale will serve as a guide for amateurs who are not acquainted with the thermometer:

Stage 1.. Le Iisse, or thread, large or small 216° F. to 218° F.
Stage 2. Le perle, or pearl..................... 220° F.
Stage 3. Le soufflet, the blow................ 230° F.
Stage 4. La plume, the feather.............. 235° F.
Stage 5. Le boulet, the ball, large or
small...................................................... 240° F. to 250° F.
Stage 6. Le casse, the crack................. 200° F. to 300° F.
Stage 7. Le caramel, the caramel 350° F.

TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Two cupfuls make a pint; in short, Four even cupfuls make a quart, And folks
have found this saying sound: " A pint's a pound the world around."

1 1b. sugar or butter = 2 cupfuls
1 pint = 2 cupfuls1/2 pint = 1 cupful1/4 pint = 1/2 cupful
2 gills = 1 cupful1 gill = 1/2 cupful
60 drops = 1 teaspoonful
3 teaspoonfuls = 1 tablespoonful
4 tablespoonfuls = 1/4 cupful
4 tablespoonfuls = 1 wineglassful
1 oz. butter = 2 tablespoonfuls
1 oz. sugar = 2 tablespoonfuls
1 oz. honey = 11/2 tablespoonfuls
1 oz. glucose = 2 tablespoonfuls
1 oz. golden syrup = 1 generous tablespoonful
1 oz. molasses = 1 generous tablespoonful

UTENSILS FOR CANDY MAKING

"Capital Things"

Thermometer

Marble Slab

Sugar Scraper

Spatulas

Dipping Forks and Rings

Pastry Brush

Caramel Cutter

Marzipan Molds

Tin Sheet

Rolling-pin

Starch Tray and Plaster

Molds Candy Bars Hair Sieve Saccharometer or Syrup

Gauge

Waxed Paper and Wafer

Paper

Rubber Mats Saucepans and Double

Boilers Nougat Frame Knives Scissors

Air-tight Tins and Jars Hook for Pulling Candy Tin Measuring Cup Pair of Heavy Gloves for Pulling Candy Platters and Basins Crystallizing Tray and

Wire Racks

A proper confectioner's thermometer is required for candy making, so that the syrup may be removed from the fire at exactly the right degree.

Such thermometers are made of wood, brass, or copper, and the degrees on them should mark not less than 350°.

A thermometer should always be gently lowered into the boiling sugar.

When not in use, it should be kept hanging up on a nail or hook.

When required for candy making, place the thermometer in a pitcher of warm water, so that it may rise gradually, and return it to the warm water on removing it from the pan. This dissolves the clinging candy and protects the tube from breaking.

The wooden thermometer can be used to stir with, and is very easily kept clean.

The saccharometer is often used for ascertaining the specific gravity of liquids. It is made of glass containing quicksilver, the same as the thermometer, and is divided into degrees or scales.

It is rather more difficult to handle than a thermometer, but the results are more certain. When immersed in cold water it marks zero, which proves that the water contains no sugar.

The scale on the saccharometer registers from o° to 500, and reads from the top downward. The advantages of the saccharometer are immense, not only as a matter of economy, but as a guide to the candy maker, who cannot work with certainty without knowing the degrees of boiling, For example: The thread, large or small, marks 25°; the pearl, 30°; the blow, 34°; the feather, 35°; the ball, 50°. After this last degree the sugar has become so thick that the saccharometer can no longer be used.

The remaining degrees, the crack and caramel, must be determined by other tests. In order to use the saccharometer to test syrup you must have a narrow tin tube, or a glass test-tube, or a tall bottle about an inch and a half in diameter. Pour some of the syrup into one of the tubes, wet the saccharometer and drop it into the tube containing the boiling sugar and it will indicate the degree of the sugar.

A marble slab is not absolutely necessary, but it is convenient and useful. When the candy is poured out on a piece of marble it cools quickly and is much better in every respect. An old marble-top wash-stand, a large platter, or a white enameled tray may be substituted for the slab.

A sugar scraper is made of a strip of strong metal or tin rolled at one end to form a handle. It is used to scrape up the sugar on the slab or platter. A broad-bladed knife can take its place.

Spatulas are flat, pear-shaped paddles made of hard wood, and are used for stirring and beating the mixtures or for scraping out the pans. They are useful little utensils, and often used in place of wooden spoons.

Dipping forks are made of wire with two or three prongs, or a loop at the end, and are used for lifting the dipped candies out of the coating mixtures. They are very inexpensive.

A caramel cutter consists of a metal framework filled in with transverse and longitudinal metal bars, which, when pressed on the surface of caramel or taffy, mark it into a number of small, neat squares. The squares are then cut out with a knife.

Marzipan molds, for molding marzipan or almond paste, are made of metal. They are sometimes made of a special preparation mounted in plaster-of-Paris, and they consist of various designs to form vegetables, fruits, nuts, shells, fish, and a great variety of other small dainties in marzipan. The molds should not be washed, but before using for the first time they should be lightly brushed with olive oil and wiped with a soft duster.

A sheet of brightly polished tin, which may be procured at the cost of a few cents (or pence), will be found useful for dropping chocolates on.

A starch tray is used when molding fondants, liqueurs, fruit jellies, or other candies in starch. Any large flat box or biscuit pan will do for this; one three inches by twenty inches is a convenient size.

Fill the box with clean, dry, sifted corn-starch. Smooth the starch with a flat stick; then make the required impressions in it. The impressions are usually made with small plaster molds which are glued to a piece of wood, but they may be made with a cork, a piece of sealing-wax, a thimble, a marble, a dent made with the tip of the finger, or a glass stopper of a bottle. The piece of wood should be longer than the box or pan. Pour or pipe in the candy mixture, filling each level with the top of the starch. When set, pick up the candies and dust off the starch. Keep the starch dry and clean in tin boxes. It should always be dried and sieved before use.

Candy bars are made of steel and are used to form various sized spaces on the marble slab, into which are poured caramel and taffy mixtures. They can be arranged to hold any quantity of candy.

Crystallizing trays are shallow tins fitted with wire racks to hold candies and prevent their rising during crystallizing. A crystallizing tray is usually about fourteen inches long and ten inches broad.

Rubber mats are used for the molding of fondants. They come in innumerable designs, and the candies cast in them are perfectly shaped and delicately modeled.

Saucepans may be made of copper, iron, granite, enamel, or aluminum. They must be kept clean inside and outside. Two small lipped pans, holding about one pint each, are convenient for melting fondant and for other minor operations.

Nougat frames are made of wood, and are used for pouring nougat into. They will be found useful for other candies as well.

A candy hook is a very handy utensil to have, and it is inexpensive. Candy is improved by being pulled on a hook, as the pulling makes it lighter in color and fluffier.

It is also much easier to pull candy over a hook than to pull it by hand.

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MATERIALS USED IN CANDY MAKING

MATERIALS USED IN CANDY MAKING

"The Daintiest that they Taste"

Sugar
Cream of Tartar
Golden Syrup
Cherries
Maple Syrup
Angelica
Maple-sugar
Milk
Glucose
Cream
Colors
Vinegar
Extracts
Lemons
Butter
Fruits
Molasses
Preserves
Gelatine
Condensed Milk
Nuts
Corn-starch
Figs
Gum Arabic
Prunes
Baking Soda
Dates
Cocoa-butter
Raisins
Popcorn
Eggs
Puffed Rice
Honey
Marshmallows
Chocolate
Preserved Ginger



When making candy, always use the best materials.

Candy of the better grade is very largely made up of sugar, with the addition of various colors, flavors, nuts, fruits, etc., and sometimes fat, starch, and glucose. The food value of candy may be expressed by the amount of sugar contained, but the wholesomeness of the other ingredients must be taken into account.

The sugar used in nearly all candy is the cane variety. Beet-sugar is very good and costs less than cane-sugar, but it is not so sweet and will not produce so palatable a sweetmeat.

Parents do their children a great injury by denying them good, pure candies. The child requires a large amount of sugar, for sugar assists in the processes of growth as no other food element can possibly do. Children of an older growth, too, require a proper amount of good, pure sugar, for these white crystals feed the ever-burning flame of the body, supplying animal heat, which is life, and rousing the nervous energies, in some cases, even better than phosphates.

Sugar, too, possesses great antiseptic properties, and can be employed to preserve animal and vegetable substances from decomposition. If added to fish, meat, etc., it renders less salt necessary for keeping them, causing them to retain more of their natural taste and flavor.

As much pure sugar as can be eaten without producing acidity is most beneficial to any one who has a desire for it. When sugar is submitted to various changes of temperature, we find it taking a number of different forms and exhibiting various characteristics.

No other single material in cookery can be produced in so many different forms. Brown and yellow sugars consist of the coarser part of the sugar, and are suitable for some kinds of candy. Confectioners' sugar is a specially pulverized sugar suitable for icings or frostings, and is used also in candy making. Maple-sugar is obtained from the sap of the sugar-maple tree and it makes delicious candy. All sugars, especially confectioners' sugar, should be kept in a dry place.

Glucose is a material against which there is much needless prejudice. Many people arc really surprised beyond belief when told that glucose is one of the sweet principles of fruits, and is the chief constituent of honey. Glucose, or starch-sugar, is made from corn-starch, which is as natural a product as cane-sugar. It is prepared by the action of a dilute solution upon corn-starch. The conversion is completed by the action of steam under pressure.

Glucose is easier to digest than sugar, because before the digestive organs can assimilate sugar they must convert it into glucose.

In candy making small quantities of glucose are used to prevent the sugar from granulating during boiling. The best candy is produced by the use of 85 per cent sugar and 15 per cent glucose.

Cream of tartar or tartaric acid may take the place of glucose in some recipes, as they also tend to prevent granulation.

Colors for use in candies are now easily procured, and are sold at reasonable prices. These colors vary greatly in strength and quality, according to the various makes. The amount of color to be used in any given case depends upon the shade of color desired, and must be varied to suit the individual taste.

The use of flavoring extracts is universal throughout the civilized world. Wherever dainty dishes are served and eaten, wherever good food is appreciated and skilled cooks try to tempt the epicure, flavoring extracts are in constant demand. Nothing is more necessary in the preparation of home-made candies than the flavor which makes it enjoyable. Therefore it is supremely important that they should be of the highest purity and quality. Inferior extracts will result in flavorless candies that can only be a source of disappointment.

Powdered gelatine is sometimes used in making candies; it should be of the best make.

The nuts generally used are sweet and bitter almonds, black and English walnuts, filberts, peanuts, chestnuts, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, Brazil nuts, butter-nuts, pecans, and hickory-nuts. In cracking nuts it is necessary to hold the nut in such a position that the shell shall be crushed along definite lines. Thus, hickory-nuts must be struck on the thin side, and pecan nuts and butter-nuts on the end.

With such nuts as the almond and filbert, less care is needed, as the nut is loose inside the shell. Shelled nuts are now common commercial products. They should always be washed and dried before they are used.

Cocoa-butter is used to enrich a poor quality of chocolate and bring it to the right coating consistency.

Butter used in candy making must be pure and wholesome and free from salt. On no account may butter-substitutes, such as oleomargarine, be used in candy making.
* BY*

*MARION HARRIS NEIL, M.C.A.*

COOKERY EDITOR, THE LADIES' HOME JOURNAL, PHILADELPHIA, AMD PRINCIPAL,

THE PHILADELPHIA PRACTICAL SCHOOL OF COOKERY; AUTHOR OF

"HOW TO COOK IN CASSEROLE DISHES"

PHILADELPHIA

DAVID McKAY, PUBLISHER

South Washinoton Square

Copyright, 1913, by David McKay